The Need for Research
José Ignacio Santos Preciado, the Director General of Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez in Mexico City, provided an introductory talk for the workshop.
He outlined the topics he would discuss (Figure 1.1). He referred to the importance of the 2003 and 2005 Lancet Child and Neonatal Survival Series and the massive problem of neonatal deaths (Figures 1.2 and 1.3). Dr. Santos emphasized that these deaths are largely preventable (Figure 1.4).
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Dr. Santos provided evidence that in the past 34 years, in Mexico, there has been a striking decrease in mortality in children under the age of five (Figure 1.5); however, there has been relatively little change in perinatal mortality.
Although asphyxia and prematurity rank as the first and second cause of perinatal mortality, infections are a significant cause of death in the perinatal period in Mexico (Figure 1.6). The sites of infections vary. The major one is bacteremia (Figure 1.7).
Dr. Santos stressed the importance of the Hospital Surveillance Network (RHOVE) (Figure 1.8). One example of the ways this network is used is to document the types of infections prevalent in different areas of Mexico (Figure 1.9).
Dr. Santos described outbreaks of nosocomial infections identified by Mexican surveillance systems with definition of the types of infections and factors responsible for them. An example of one series in which the cause of neonatal infections was studied is shown in Figure 1.10.
Dr. Santos then set out research priorities relating to neonatal infections (Figure 1.11).