Facebook Pixel Code
Brainworks image
BrainWorks

What are Inflammatory Brain Diseases (IBrainD)

Inflammation can target different structures in the brain and/or spinal cord. In CNS vasculitis, the inflammation targets the blood vessels in the central nervous system. The spectrum of non-vasculitic inflammatory brain diseases is constantly expanding; it includes antibody-mediated inflammatory brain diseases such as anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), primary T-cell mediated parenchymal inflammatory brain diseases such as Rasmussen's encephalitis, and granulomatous inflammatory brain diseases such as neurosarcoidosis.


Non-vasculitic inflammatory brain diseases criteria:

  1. Any newly acquired neurological and/or psychiatric deficit
  2. Evidence of an inflammatory brain disease in childhood, including:
    1. Auto-antibodies (NMDAR, Channel antibodies such as VGKC in limbic encephalitis, anti-aquaporin4 water channels in NMO, anti-neuronal enzyme antibodies such as GAD, OMS antibodies)
    2. Brain biopsy evidence of CNS inflammation other than small-vessel vasculitis
    3. Evidence of a positive post-infectious serology such as IgM for mycoplasma in the CSF with or without corresponding neuroimaging features
    4. Strong supportive evidence of CNS inflammation on spinal tap and/or MRI with subsequent immunosuppressive therapy

For a list detailing common non-vasculitic inflammatory brain diseases in adults, click here

For a list detailing common non-vasculitic inflammatory brain diseases in children, click here