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Listed below are review articles and original research articles on inflammatory brain diseases. Some of these articles have been referenced extensively throughout this website. If you would like to suggest addition of new articles to this list, please contact us by email

Childhood CNS Vasculitis

Gowdie P, Twilt M, Benseler SM. Primary and secondary central nervous system vasculitis. J Child Neurol, 2012. 27(11): p. 1448-59. Abstract

Cellucci T, Tyrrell PN, Pullenayegum E, Benseler SM. von Willebrand factor antigen--a possible biomarker of disease activity in childhood central nervous system vasculitis?. Rheumatology (Oxford), 2012. 51(10): p. 1838-45 Abstract

Cellucci T, Tyrrell PN, Sheikh S, Benseler SM. Childhood primary angiitis of the central nervous system: Identifying disease trajectories and early risk factors for persistently higher disease activity. Arthritis Rheum, 2012. 64(5): p. 1665-72 Abstract

Hajj-Ali RA, Singhal AB, Benseler S, Molloy E, Calabrese LH. Primary angiitis of the CNS. Lancet Neurol, 2011. 10(6): p. 561-72. Abstract

Twilt M, Benseler SM. The spectrum of CNS vasculitis in children and adults. Nat Rev Rheumatol, 2011. 8(2): p. 97-107. Abstract

Cellucci T, Benseler SM. Central nervous system vasculitis in children. Curr Opin Rheumatol, 2010. 22(5): p. 590-7. Abstract

Cellucci T, Benseler SM. Diagnosing central nervous system vasculitis in children. Curr Opin Pediatr, 2010. 22(6): p. 731-8. Abstract

Elbers J, Halliday W, Hawkins C, Hutchinson C, Benseler SM. Brain biopsy in children with primary small-vessel central nervous system vasculitis. Ann Neurol, 2010. 68(5): p. 602-10. Abstract

Eleftheriou D, Cox T, Saunders D, Klein NJ, Brogan PA, Ganesan V. Investigation of childhood central nervous system vasculitis: magnetic resonance angiography versus catheter cerebral angiography. Dev Med Child Neurol, 2010. 52(9): p. 863-7. Abstract

Hutchinson C, Elbers J, Halliday W, Branson H, Laughlin S, Armstrong D, Hawkins C, Westmacott R, Benseler SM. Treatment of small vessel primary CNS vasculitis in children: an open-label cohort study. Lancet Neurol, 2010. 9(11): p. 1078-84. Abstract

Sen ES, Leone V, Abinun M, Forsyth R, Ramesh V, Friswell M, O'Callaghan F, Ramanan AV. Treatment of primary angiitis of the central nervous system in childhood with mycophenolate mofetil. Rheumatology (Oxford), 2010. 49(4): p. 806-11. Abstract

Aviv RI, Benseler SM, DeVeber G, Silverman ED, Tyrrell PN, Tsang LM, Armstrong D. Angiography of primary central nervous system angiitis of childhood: conventional angiography versus magnetic resonance angiography at presentation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 2007. 28(1): p. 9-15. Abstract

Aviv RI, Benseler SM, Silverman ED, Tyrrell PN, Deveber G, Tsang LM, Armstrong D. MR imaging and angiography of primary CNS vasculitis of childhood. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 2006. 27(1): p. 192-9. Abstract

Benseler SM, Silverman E, Aviv RI, Schneider R, Armstrong D, Tyrrell PN, deVeber G. Primary central nervous system vasculitis in children. Arthritis Rheum, 2006. 54(4): p. 1291-7. Abstract

Benseler SM, deVeber G, Hawkins C, Schneider R, Tyrrell PN, Aviv RI, Armstrong D, Laxer RM, Silverman ED. Angiography-negative primary central nervous system vasculitis in children: a newly recognized inflammatory central nervous system disease. Arthritis Rheum, 2005. 52(7): p. 2159-67. Abstract

Adult CNS Vasculitis

Salvarani C, Brown RD, Jr., Christianson T, Miller DV, Giannini C, Huston J, 3rd et al. An update of the Mayo Clinic cohort of patients with adult primary central nervous system vasculitis: description of 163 patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015;94(21):e738. Abstract 

Salvarani C, Brown RD, Jr., Christianson TJ, Huston J, 3rd, Giannini C, Miller DV et al. Adult primary central nervous system vasculitis treatment and course: analysis of one hundred sixty-three patients. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015;67(6):1637-45. Abstract

de Boysson H, Zuber M, Naggara O, Neau JP, Gray F, Bousser MG et al. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system: description of the first fifty-two adults enrolled in the French cohort of patients with primary vasculitis of the central nervous system. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014;66(5):1315-26. Abstract

Pagnoux C, Hajj-Ali RA. Pharmacological approaches to CNS vasculitis: where are we at now? Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Jan;9(1):109-16. Abstract 

Alrawi A, Trobe JD, Blaivas M, Musch DC. Brain biopsy in primary angiitis of the central nervous system. Neurology. 1999;53(4):858-60. Abstract

Hajj-Ali RA, Singhal AB, Benseler S, Molloy E, Calabrese LH. Primary angiitis of the CNS. Lancet Neurol. 2011;10(6):561-72. Abstract

Calabrese LH, Mallek JA. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system. Report of 8 new cases, review of the literature, and proposal for diagnostic criteria. Medicine (Baltimore). 1988;67(1):20-39. Abstract

Miller DV, Salvarani C, Hunder GG, Brown RD, Parisi JE, Christianson TJ et al. Biopsy findings in primary angiitis of the central nervous system. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009;33(1):35-43. Abstract

Twilt M, Benseler SM. The spectrum of CNS vasculitis in children and adults. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2011;8(2):97-107. Abstract

Jennette JC, Falk RJ, Bacon PA, Basu N, Cid MC, Ferrario F et al. 2012 revised International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference Nomenclature of Vasculitides. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65(1):1-11. Abstract

Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis

Luca N, Daengsuwan T, Dalmau J, Jones K, deVeber G, Kobayashi J, Laxer RM, Benseler SM. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: a newly recognized inflammatory brain disease in children. Arthritis Rheum, 2011. 63(8): p. 2516-22. Abstract

Florance NR, Davis RL, Lam C, Szperka C, Zhou L, Ahmad S, Campen CJ, Moss H, Peter N, Gleichman AJ, Glaser CA, Lynch DR, Rosenfeld MR, Dalmau J. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis in children and adolescents. Ann Neurol, 2009. 66(1): p. 11-8. Abstract

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM)

Palace J. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and its place amongst other acute inflammatory demyelinating CNS disorders. J Neurol Sci, 2011. 306(1-2): p. 188-91. Abstract

Tenembaum SN. Disseminated encephalomyelitis in children. Clin Neurol Neurosurg, 2008. 110(9): p. 928-38. Abstract

Limbic Encephalitis

Haberlandt E, Bast T, Ebner A, Holthausen H, Kluger G, Kravljanac R, Kröll-Seger J, Kurlemann G, Makowski C, Rostasy K, Tuschen-Hofstätter E, Weber G, Vincent A, Bien CG. Limbic encephalitis in children and adolescents. Arch Dis Child, 2011. 96(2): p. 186-91. Abstract

Lai M, Huijbers MG, Lancaster E, Graus F, Bataller L, Balice-Gordon R, Cowell JK, Dalmau J. Investigation of LGI1 as the antigen in limbic encephalitis previously attributed to potassium channels: a case series. Lancet Neurol, 2010. 9(8): p. 776-85. Abstract

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Banwell B, Bar-Or A, Arnold DL, Sadovnick D, Narayanan S, McGowan M, O'Mahony J, Magalhaes S, Hanwell H, Vieth R, Tellier R, Vincent T, Disanto G, Ebers G, Wambera K, Connolly MB, Yager J, Mah JK, Booth F, Sebire G, Callen D, Meaney B, Dilenge ME, Lortie A, Pohl D, Doja A, Venketaswaran S, Levin S, Macdonald EA, Meek D, Wood E, Lowry N, Buckley D, Yim C, Awuku M, Cooper P, Grand'maison F, Baird JB, Bhan V, Marrie RA. Clinical, environmental, and genetic determinants of multiple sclerosis in children with acute demyelination: a prospective national cohort study. Lancet Neurol, 2011. 10(5): p. 436-45. Abstract

Banwell B, Ghezzi A, Bar-Or A, Mikaeloff Y, Tardieu M. Multiple sclerosis in children: clinical diagnosis, therapeutic strategies, and future directions. Lancet Neurol, 2007. 6(10): p. 887-902. Abstract

Neuromyelitis Optica

Peña JA, Ravelo ME, Mora-La Cruz E, Montiel-Nava C. NMO in pediatric patients: brain involvement and clinical expression. Arq Neuropsiquiatr, 2011. 69(1): p. 34-8. Abstract

Dale RC, Brilot F, Banwell B. Pediatric central nervous system inflammatory demyelination: acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, clinically isolated syndromes, neuromyelitis optica, and multiple sclerosis. Curr Opin Neurol, 2009. 22(3): p. 233-40. Abstract

Lotze TE, Northrop JL, Hutton GJ, Ross B, Schiffman JS, Hunter JV. Spectrum of pediatric neuromyelitis optica. Pediatrics, 2008. 122(5): p. e1039-47. Abstract


Fretzayas A, Moustaki M, Vougiouka O. The puzzling clinical spectrum and course of juvenile sarcoidosis. World J Pediatr, 2011. 7(2): p. 103-10. Abstract

Baumann RJ, Robertson WC Jr. Neurosarcoid presents differently in children than in adults. Pediatrics, 2003. 112(6 Pt 1): p. e480-6. Abstract

Optic Neuritis

Waldman AT, Stull LB, Galetta SL, Balcer LJ, Liu GT. Pediatric optic neuritis and risk of multiple sclerosis: meta-analysis of observational studies. J AAPOS, 2011. 15(5): p. 441-6. Abstract

Wilejto M, Shroff M, Buncic JR, Kennedy J, Goia C, Banwell B. The clinical features, MRI findings, and outcome of optic neuritis in children. Neurology, 2006. 67(2): p. 258-62. Abstract