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Division of Orthopaedics


Below is a compilation of some important papers published by our orthopaedic faculty. For further information on papers published by our staff surgeons, please go to Pubmed.

Selected fellow publications can be seen by downloading the pdf Selected Fellows Publications

Injuries Involving the Epiphyseal Plate
Salter & Harris, Journal Bone and Joint Surgery, 1963
Developed the most commonly used classification system for children’s fracture, which identifies the best treatment and predicts outcome.

Role of Innominate Osteotomy in the Treatment of Congenital Dislocation and Subluxation of the Hip in the Older Child
Salter, Journal Bone and Joint Surgery, 1966
Developed an operation for dislocated or dysplastic hips, which is now used world wide in the treatment of children with developmental hip problems.

An Operation Frame for Spinal Fusion - A New Apparatus Designed to Reduce Haemorrhage During Operation
Relton & Hall, Journal Bone and Joint Surgery, 1966
Developed a special frame for use in scoliosis operations that substantially reduced blood loss. This concept is used today in almost all spine operations world wide.

Observations Concerning Fractures of the Lateral Humeral Condyle in Children
Jakob, Fowles, Rang & Kassab, Journal Bone and Joint Surgery, 1975
Established the treatment principles used in the management of fractures of the lateral condyle, a common childhood elbow injury.

The Patters of Spinal Deformity in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Wilkins & Gibson, Journal Bone and Joint Surgery, 1976
Showed that almost all boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy develop progressive scoliosis. This study is the basis for recommendations for prophylactic spinal surgery in this disease.

The Biological Effect of Continuous Passive Motion on the Healing of Full-Thickness Defects in Articular Cartilage
Salter, Simmonds, Malcolm, Rumble, Macmichael & Clements, Journal Bone and Joint Surgery, 1980
Showed that continuous passive motion improves outcome after joint surgery. This concept has been used in millions of patients world wide.

Management of Displaced Extension-Type Supracondylar Fractures of the Humerus in Children
Pirone, Graham & Krajbich, Journal Bone and Joint Surgery 1988
Showed that reduction and pinning of supracondylar elbow fractures is the best treatment. This is now the most common management in use for this fracture type.

Constitutively Activated Receptors for Parathyroid Hormone and Parathyroid hormone-related Peptide in Jansen’s Metaphyseal Chondrodysplasia
Schipani, Langman, Parfitt, Jensen, Kikuchi, Kooh, Cole & Jüppner,
New England Journal of Medicine, 1996
Identification of the genetic cause of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, an inherited cause of short stature.

Mutations Inolving the Transcription Factor CBFA1 Cause Cleidocranial Dysplasia
Mundlos S, Otto, Mundlos C, Mulliken, Aylsworth, Albright, Lindhout, Cole, Henn, Knoll, Owen, Mertelsmann, Zabel & Olsen, Cell, 1997
Identified the genetic cause for cleidocranial dysplasia, a condition in which some bones, such as the clavicles, are incompletely formed.

Mutations of the α2(V) chain of type V collagen impair matrix assembly and produce Ehlers-Danlos symdrome type I
Michalickova, Susic, Willing, Wenstrup & Cole, Human Molecular Genetics 1998
Identified the genetic cause of a type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, an inherited cause of loose joints.

Differences Between Men and Women in the Rate of Use of Hip and Knee Arthroplasty
Hawker, Wright, Coyte, Williams, Harvey, Glazier, Badley, New England Journal of Medicine 2000
Showed that women were less likely to receive total joint replacements than men. This was the first demonstration of gender disparity in this medical area.

β-Catenin stabilization dysregulates mesenchymal cell proliferation, motility, and invasiveness and causes aggressive fibromatosis and hyperplastic cutaneous wounds
Cheon, Cheah, Turley, Nadesan, Ppon, Clevers & Alman, Proceedings National Academy of Sciences (USA), 2002
Identified the genetic cause of the fibrous tumour, aggressive fibromatosis, and showed that activation of the causative pathway also results in hyperplastic scars. This work is the basis for new drug trials in this tumour type.

A mutant PTH/PTHгP type receptor in enchondromatosis
Hopyan, Gokgoz, Ppon, Gensure, Yu, Cole, Bell, Jüppner, Andrulis, Wunder & Alman, Nature Genetics, 2002
Identification of a mutation that causes enchodromas, a common benign cartilage tumour in children. This data suggested a potential therapy for cartilage tumours, which is now being tested.

Introducing Levels of Evidence to the Journal
Wright, Swiontkowski & Heckman, Journal Bone Joint Surgery, 2003
Introduced the concept of levels of evidence to the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, the premier orthopaedic medical journal. This is now in common use in the orthopedic literature.

Steroid Treatment and the Development of Scoliosis in Males with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Alman, Raza & Biggar, Journal Bone and Joint Surgery, 2004
The first report of a drug therapy to prevent the development of scoliosis. This treatment has reduced the need for spinal surgery in Duchenne muscular dystrophy by more than 75%.

Pedicle Subtraction Osteotomy for the Treament of Fixed Sagittal Imbalance
Bridwell, Lewis, Rinella, Lenke, Baldus & Blanke, Journal Bone and Joint Surgery, 2004
Report of a technique to correct severe spinal deformity. This procedure allows for better correction using a shorter operative time.

A novel COL1A1 mutation in infantile corical hyperostosis (Caffey disease) expands the spectrum of collagen-related disorders
Gensure, Mäkitie, Barclay, Chan, DePalman, Bastepe, Abuzahra, Couper, Mundlos, Sillence, Kokko, Seidman, Cole & Jüppner, Journal Clinical Investigation, 2005
Identified the cause of Caffey disease, a condition which causes excess bone formation in infants.

Treatments for paediatric femoral fractures: a randomized trial
Wright, Wang, Owen, Stephens, Graham, Hanlon, Nattrass, Reynolds & Coyte, Lancet 2005
Report of the first multicentre randomised prospective trial of two treatments for femur fractures in children. This study identified cast immobilization as a less than optimal treatment.

The effect of safer play equipment on playground injury rates among school children
Howard, MacArthur, Willan, Rothman, Moses-McKeag, MacPherson, Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2005
Showed that the replacement of unsafe playground equipment substantially reduced the rate of fractures in children in Toronto.

Building Surgical Research Capacity in Africa: The Ptolemy Project
Derbew, Beveridge, Howard & Byrne, PLoS Medicine 2006
Report of the first project to provide easy access to medical literature and information in Africa.

Initial development and validation of the Caregiver Priorities and Child Health Index of Life with Disabilities (CPCHILD)
Narayanan, Fehlings, Weir, Knights, Kiran & Campbell, Dev Med Child Neurol, 2006
Developed a scale to measure the health quality of life in children with severe disabilities.

Importance of Pelvic Compensation in Posture and Motion After Posterior Spinal Fusion Using CD Instrumentation for Idiopathic Scoliosis
Skalli, Zeller, Miladi, Bourcereau, Savidan, Lavaste & Duboussett, Spine, 2006
Found that there is substantial movement of the pelvis after spinal surgery, suggesting new techniques to fuse the spine in scoliosis taking advantage of compensation which occurs from pelvic motion.

Side Pouplation Cells Isolated from Mesenchymal Neoplasms Have Tumor Initiating Potential
Wu, Wei, Utomo, Nadesanm,, Whetsonte, Kandel, Wunder & Alman, Cancer Research, 2007
Identified a subpopulation of sarcoma (malignant tumours of bones or soft tissues) cells that act as stem cells for the tumour (cancer stem cells). Therapeutically targeting these cells has the potential to cure sarcomas.

Beta-Catenin Signaling Plays a Disparate Role in Different Phases of Fracture Repair: Implications for Therapy to Improve Bone Healing
Chen, Whetstone, Lin, Nadesan, Wei, Poon & Alman, PLoS Medicine, 2007
Identified a novel drug therapy to improve fracture healing based on understanding the genes activated during the healing process.

Outcome at Forty-five Years After Open Reduction and Innominate Ostetomy for Late-Presenting Developmental Dislocation of the Hip
Thomas, Wedge & Salter, Journal Bone and Joint Surgery 2007
45 years after treatment with an open reduction and innominate osteotomy for a childhood hip dislocation more than half of the hips are asymptomatic without evidence of arthritis, setting the standard for treatment outcome.

Plasticity of proximal-distal cell fate in the mammalian limb bud
Wyngaarden & Hopyan, Developmental Biology 2007
Found that in early in-utero limb development cells can become any part of the limb. This study lays the foundation for work to determine how cells can be manipulated to allow for regeneration of a damaged limb.

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