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PEM Ortho X-ray Curriculum


  1. Recognize the components of normal C-spine anatomy.
  2. The ABCs method is a structured approach to C-spine x-ray interpretation.
  3. Consider paediatric-specific features on C-spine x-rays.


  1. Fleisher GR, Ludwig S, eds.Textbook of Pediatric Emergency Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia:Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2004.
  2. Swischuk LE. Emergency Imaging of the Acutely Ill or Injured Child.4th ed. Philadelphia:Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2000.
  3. University of Virginia Health Science Center,Department of Radiology.Available from World Wide Web: http://www.med-ed.virginia.edu/courses/rad/cspine/