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PEM Ortho X-ray Curriculum


  1. Recognize what constitute Jefferson and Hangman's fractures.
  2. Define parameters for atlantoaxial subluxation.
  3. Identify cervical distraction and vertebral compression in injuries.


  1. Fleisher GR, Ludwig, S, eds.Textbook of Pediatric Emergency Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2004.
  2. Swischuk LE. Emergency Imaging of the Acutely Ill or Injured Child. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2000.
  3. Cheng A, Mikrogianakis A, Valani R, eds. Hospital for Sick Children Manual of Pediatric Trauma. Lippincott, Williams & Williams, Toronto 2007.