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PEM Ortho X-ray Curriculum


  • Common hip problems in children include Legg-Calve-Perthe's disease in younger children and SCFE in older children. Clinical and radiological signs may be subtle early in the disease. Correct diagnosis and urgent referral to orthopedics are essential.
  • Fractures of the pelvis, hip, and femur are all high impact injuries requiring significant force. The exception is avulsion fractures of the pelvis.
  • Fractures of the femur in children less than the age of four are unusual; unless there is significant force or torsion and should raise the suspicion of non-accidental injury. 









  1. Price CT and Flynn JM. In Morrissy RT, and Weinstein SL (Eds). Lovell and Winter's Paediatric Orthopedics 6th Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins 2000: 1430-1525.
  2. Bachman D and Santora S. Orthopedic Trauma. In: Fleisher G, Ludwig S. (Eds). Textbook of Paediatric Emergency Medicine. 4th Edition. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins 2000: 1435-1478