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PEM Ortho X-ray Curriculum


  • Radiographs should be routinely ordered to rule out fractures. Knee injuries in children less than 14 years of age are more commonly seen than ligamentous injuries.
  • AP and lateral views are adequate for most cases, but infrapatellar or "sunrise" view is recommended if patellar dislocation or fracture is suspected.
  • All reductions should be confirmed radiographically to rule out association fractures.


  1. Fleisher, GR, & Ludwig, S, eds. Textbook of Paediatric Emergency Medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2000. 
  2. Yamamoto, LG, Inaba, AS & DiMAuro, RM. 1994. Radiology Cases in Paediatric Emergency Medicine [online]. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children, Department of Paediatrics, University of Hawaii, John A. Burns School of Medicine [cited 29 July 2005]. Available from World Wide Web: (http://www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pemxray/pemxray.html)