Facebook Pixel Code
Section banner image
Paediatric Laboratory Medicine

Clinical Biochemistry

The Division of Clinical Biochemistry is known as a reference paediatric clinical biochemistry laboratory offering comprehensive and specialized laboratory services and technical/scientific expertise. It is a central reference clinical chemistry laboratory accessed by clinicians and laboratorians worldwide.  

The laboratory has considerable expertise in dealing with small sample volumes and relevant analytical methods suitable for the analysis of paediatric specimens. 

The division is very active in both graduate and postgraduate teaching through its affiliation with the University of Toronto and houses a number of basic and clinically-oriented research projects (supported by numerous grants from national and provincial granting foundations). 

Biochemistry - Routine 

Routine biochemistry tests are available upon request for all biological fluids including whole blood, serum, plasma, urine, CSF and other fluids. Please contact the lab manager for further information.

Complete list of Biochemistry tests

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) 

The comprehensive Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) laboratory is able to analyze a broad range of drugs utilizing advanced techniques to help clinicians and pharmacists provide effective and safe drug therapies to individual patients.

Complete list of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring tests



The Toxicology laboratory at SickKids is able to analyze a wide range of specimens for close to 1,500 drugs and chemicals.  With our direct connection to the Ontario Poison Center and the American Association of Poison Centers we are able to quickly develop new tests that are current with changing drug trends.

Complete list of Toxicology tests

Metabolic Diseases 

The Metabolic Diseases laboratory in the Division of Clinical Biochemistry is dedicated to service, education and research in the diagnosis and treatment of inborn errors of metabolism.

The majority of these disorders present in childhood and patients are often initially diagnosed with some other condition.

Laboratory personnel possess a high level technical and interpretive skills and are equipped to handle a broad spectrum of disorders with special emphasis on:

  • Amino acidurias
  • Organic acidurias
  • Glycogen storage and fatty acid oxidation disorders
  • Lysosomal storage diseases

Methodologies in use include:

  • Tandem mass spectrometry
  • Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
  • Thin layer chromatography
  • Colorimetric, fluorimetric and radioisotopic analyte and enzyme assays using a variety of tissue sources such as:     
    • blood
    • urine
    • cerebrospinal fluid
    • cultured cells
    • biopsy specimens

We are certified as a Tay-Sachs screening centre (NTSAD) and participate in ERNDIM and CDC international quality assurance programmes. Prenatal diagnosis of certain conditions is offered. 

Research interests include:

  • Molecular and biochemical bases of lysosomal storage diseases
  • Intermediary metabolism
  • Energy metabolism
  • Mitochondrial disorders

Complete list of Genetic Metabolic tests


The Clinical Biochemistry division offers a wide arrange of mitochondrial functional enzyme tests that aid in diagnosis and monitoring of children with mitochondrial genetic diseases. These functional assays are unique as they assess the functional impact of specific mitochondrial genetic mutations and their potential consequences in disease presentation and clinical outcome. For more information on mitochondrial disease enzyme testing, please contact Valeriy Levandovskiy or Lianna Kyriakopoulou in the Mitochondrial Laboratory.

Complete list of Mitochondrial tests

Clinical Test Development 

The Research and Development Laboratory of the Division of Clinical Biochemistry offers laboratory support for research projects and clinical trials.

Among the research and development activities, the laboratory is involved in the CALIPER database (Canadian Laboratory Initiative on Paediatric Reference Range Database). Efforts are focused on current and emerging markers of lipoprotein metabolism with assays being performed on the VITROS 5,1 FS integrated chemistry system from Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics.

Also, the lab has recently introduced methods for lipoprotein fractionation to provide reports for HDL, LDL and triglycerides in hyperlipidemic patients.

We offer a wide menu of routine chemistry and specialized immunoassay testing for your research or clinical trial needs. Our services provide:

  • Fast turnaround times
  • Competitive rates
  • Special pricing for large volumes

We work with you to develop/facilitate the clinical trial. To ensure accuracy of your test results, we provide instructions for:

  • Patient preparation
  • Specimen collection
  • Sample handling

The following are some of the specialized tests:

  • Cytokines; IL-1b, IL2R, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNFa
  • Leptin, Grehlin, Adiponectin, Insulin, and C-peptide
  • Apoliprotein A-1, Apolipoprotein B and Apoliporotein (a)
  • Endothelin, BNP, Homocysteine, hsCRP and Troponin
  • IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and Renin
  • S-100B protein, Procalcitonin, and Soluble Transferrin Receptor

The Research and Development Laboratory is actively involved in diagnostic test development and comparison of new methods to aid in clinical assessment in such areas as:

  • nephrology
  • endocrinology
  • gastroenterology
  • cardiology
  • critical care medicine

Mass Spectrometry

Clinical Test development is also available (for a wide variety of biochemical parameters including metabolites, drugs, toxins, and other analytes) on analytical instrumentation including Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography, and other platforms.


To discuss your test development needs for clinical trials, research projects, or other related studies; please contact:

Man Khun Chan 
Senior R&D technologist
Email: mankhun.chan@sickkids.ca

Dr. Khosrow Adeli 
Laboratory Director
Email: khosrow.adeli@sickkids.ca

Complete list of Clinical Test Development tests

Paediatric Reference Interval Database (CALIPER) 

The Clinical Biochemistry Division has initiated a national project aimed at establishing a comprehensive database of paediatric reference intervals for biochemical markers of paediatric disease. Accurate laboratory tests/biomarkers of pediatric disease and reliable reference intervals (or standards) for proper interpretation of laboratory tests are both crucial for providing quality medical care for children. The CALIPER project is aimed at developing pediatric reference intervals that can be used to identify abnormal test results in children with medical concerns. This will enable physicians to more accurately and efficiently diagnose and treat children. CALIPER has recently been successful in filling the gaps in pediatric reference intervals by developing a complete and comprehensive reference interval database that is appropriately adjusted for age, gender and ethnicity.

For more information on the CALIPER project and to access the CALIPER database, please visit: www.caliperproject.ca

View the database | Download the App