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Staff physicians

Martin Koyle  |  Darius Bagli  |  Walid Farhat  |  Armando Lorenzo  |  Frank Papanikolaou    
Joana Dos Santos









Martin Koyle, FAAP, FACS, FRCS (Eng.), FRCSC
Head of the Division of Urology, The Hospital for Sick Children
Women's Auxiliary Chair in Urology & Regenerative Medicine
Professor, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto

Dr. Martin Koyle joined SickKids as the Head of the Division of Urology and the University of Toronto as a Professor in July of 2011. He was previously Division Chief at Seattle Children’s and the University of Washington in Seattle, Washington, where he held the Michael Mitchell Endowed Chair in Paediatric Urology.

After completing his medical school education in Winnipeg, Canada, at the University of Manitoba, he undertook residency and fellowship training at Los Angeles – USC Medical Center, Harvard University and in San Francisco. 

Koyle recently completed an M.Sc. in Quality Improvement and Patient Safety (QIP) at IHPME at the University of Toronto.

During his more than a quarter century in academic urology, Koyle has been known for his innovations and contributions, specifically to the fields of paediatric urology and transplantation.  

See staff profile.



Associate Head, Division of Urology
Associate Surgeon-in-Chief
Attending Urologic Surgeon
Senior Associate Scientist, The Hospital for Sick Children
Professor, Departments of Surgery and Physiology, University of Toronto

Dr. Darius Bägli became a member of the surgical staff at SickKids and the Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, in 1995. He is certified in Urologic Surgery by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, the American College of Surgeons, the American Board of Urology and is a Fellow of the American Academy of Paediatrics. He directs a laboratory in cell and matrix biology in the hospital Research Institute, as well as oversees a busy clinical practice in paediatric urology and reconstructive surgery.

He is one of the few paediatric urologists with an independent cell and molecular biology program in North America and the only one in Canada. Bägli continues to hold peer–reviewed funding for his research and is actively involved in both the basic science and clinical training of the paediatric urology fellows at SickKids. 



Walid A. Farhat, MD, FRCSC, FACS, GPLLM
Paediatric Urologist, The Hospital for Sick Children
Professor, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto
Associate Surgeon-in-Chief of Education
Surgical Undergraduate Coordinator
University of Toronto

Dr. Walid Farhat is a Professor with the Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, and a Paediatric Urologist with The Hospital for Sick Children. After joining SickKids in 1998, Farhat has gradually developed a unique niche within the urology field in the education, clinical and research arenas. His most recent expansion of practice has been within the medicolegal area after completing his Global Professional Master of Laws with the University of Toronto

Farhat is the Fellowship Program Director in the Division of Urology, as well as the Associate Surgeon in Chief of Education for the Department of Surgery. He is continuously involved with the hands on education, and successfully initiated and organized the Pediatric Urology Laparoscopy Course (PULC) for the past 11 years, teaching the basic skills of laparoscopy through didactic lectures and hands on pig lab.

His research in robotics, investigates the mechanical restrictions in small animal models and the technical and ergonomic details for successful multi-quadrant surgical approaches. To enhance collaboration and fasten the development of robotic surgical tools, Farhat has created a robotic forum. Farhat also oversees several science research projects in urinary bladder tissue engineering, and the basic structure of the urinary bladder, its physical characteristics with particular emphasis on the early stages of urinary bladder development in animal models.



Armando Lorenzo, MD, FRCSC, ABU Board Certified
Paediatric Urologist, The Hospital for Sick Children
Associate Professor, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto

Dr. Armando Lorenzo is a native of Panama, where he completed medical studies graduating easily at the top of his class. He completed his Urology Residency at the University of Texas Southwestern medical School, in Dallas, Texas and began his fellowship at SickKids in 2004. Lorenzo has consistently won top medical and urological honours in his native panama, the US and Canada.

Most recently he was the recipient of an American Urological Association Research Fellowship for 2006-07, where he has been working with Dr. Darius Bägli in the field of bladder pathomechanics. Equally versed in the language of basic science and outcomes research, he will be specializing in the latter following completion of an MSc in Epidemiology though the Faculty of Medicine Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation.

Well published in several areas of Urology, Lorenzo also has a keen interest in enhancing minimally invasive surgical alternatives for patients, and establishing a field of outcomes research in paediatric urology which has not formally existed up to now. Lorenzo is a superbly gifted technical surgeon with an inquiring mind, and boundless enthusiasm for improving the life of the young patients we all care for. 

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Dr. Frank Papanikolaou, MD
Paediatric Urologist, The Hospital for Sick Children

Dr. Frank Papanikolaou graduated from the University of Ottawa Medical School and completed his Urology Residency at the University of Toronto. He then completed a two-year Pediatric Urology Fellowship at SickKids.  Since then he has been a Staff Urologist at Trillium Health Partners and is an Associate Staff Urologist at SickKids.

Papanikolaou has been an active member within the Urology community as Chair of the Section of Urology of the Ontario Medical Association, Member-at-Large of the Canadian Urological Association, President of the Credit Valley Medical Society and as a Royal College Examiner.

As part of his evolving interest in medical administration Papanikolaou completed Physician Leadership Programs at both Rotman and Schulich Schools of Business. He also holds administrative positions at Trillium Health Partners as Division Lead of Pediatric Surgery and Service Medical Director of Operations, Patient Flow and Patient Registration.

Papanikolaou is passionate about providing the best care possible for his patients.



Dr. Joana Dos Santos

Dr. Joana Dos Santos, MD
Medical Urology Staff, The Hospital for Sick Children
Assistant Professor of Paediatrics, University of Toronto

Dr. Joana Dos Santos joined the Division of Urology at SickKids in July 2015 as the first Medical Urologist in Canada, and subsequently to the University of Toronto as an Assistant Professor of Paediatrics.  After completing medical school at the Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, she underwent paediatrics and paediatric nephrology residency training at the Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Dos Santos started at SickKids in 2011 as research fellow in Paediatric Nephrology, later to become a true pioneer as the first Medical Urology Fellow with training focused on clinical management of urological conditions.

Dos Santos developed a new grading system for the management of Antenatal Hydronephrosis, which has been recently published.  She is an active researcher interested in congenital abnormalities of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT), renal stones, and bladder and bowel dysfunction in children. Dos Santos is responsible for the Medical Urology Clinic, as well as the Newborn Circumcision clinic, which has recently expanded to 1-2 times per week, and is closely involved with the Combined Urology Nephrology Stone Clinic. Dos Santos is passionate about the medical management of urological conditions and continuous improvement of the care of children.

See Staff profile.

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