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Neurosciences & Mental Health

Featured NMH Publications

Spectral slowing is associated with working memory performance in children born very preterm.  Science Reports, 2019, 9(1):15757.
Sato, J., Mossad, S.I., Wong, S.M., Hunt, B.A.E., Dunkley, B.T., Urbain, C., Taylor, M.J.

This study found that very preterm born children (at 6 years of age) recruit a theta network for working memory, whereas the full-term children used a larger network, and in the alpha band, suggesting a less mature system in the VPT group, which can help explain their memory challenges.

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy neuropathology might not be inexorably progressive or unique to repetitive neurotrauma. Brain 2019 Oct 31. pii: awz286. doi: 10.1093/brain/awz286.
Iverson G, Gardner AJ, Shultz SR, Solomon GS, McCrory P, Zafonte R, Perry G, Hazrati LN, Keene CD, Castellani RJ (2019)

There is tremendous recent interest in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in former collision sport athletes, civilians, and military veterans. This critical review places important recent research results into a historical context. More research is needed to determine the extent to which the neuropathology ascribed to long-term effects of neurotrauma is static, progressive, or both. Disambiguating the pathology from the broad array of clinical features that have been reported in recent studies might facilitate and accelerate research- and improve understanding of CTE.

Predicting developmental outcomes in preterm infants: A simple white matter injury imaging rule.
Cayam-Rand D, Guo T, Grunau RE, Benavente-Fernández I, Synnes A, Chau V, Branson H, Latal B, McQuillen P, Miller SP. Neurology. 2019 Sep 24;93(13):e1231-e1240. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000008172. Epub 2019 Aug 29

The purpose of this study was to develop a simple imaging rule to predict neurodevelopmental outcomes at 4.5 years in a cohort of preterm neonates with white matter injury (WMI) based on lesion location and examine whether clinical variables enhance prediction. Results showed WMI on early MRI can be classified by location to predict preschool age outcomes in children born preterm. The predictive value of this WMI classification is enhanced by considering clinical factors apparent by term-equivalent age.

Translating neural stem cells to neurons in the mammalian brain.
Zahr SK, Kaplan DR, Miller FD. Cell Death Differ. 2019 Sep 24. doi: 10.1038/s41418-019-0411

This review provides an overview of embryonic and adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) neurogenesis and the emerging role of posttranscriptional control. Also discussed is the concept of transcriptional priming in the context of posttranscriptional mechanisms. Finally, these findings are integrated into a model of posttranscriptional control of neurogenesis.

Superior Intellectual Outcomes after Proton Radiotherapy Compared to Photon Radiotherapy for Pediatric Medulloblastoma.
Kahalley LS, Peterson R, Ris,MD, Janzen L, Okcu MF, Grosshans DR, Ramaswamy  V, Paulin, AC, Hodgson D, Mahajan A, Tsang DS, Laperriere N, Whitehead WE, Dauser RC, Taylor MD, Chintagumpala M, Bouffet E, Mabbott DJ.   Journal of Clinical Oncology, Published Online

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to compare intellectual trajectories between pediatric patients treated for medulloblastoma with PRT versus those treated with XRT on comparable, contemporary protocols. PRT was associated with more favorable intellectual outcomes in most domains compared with XRT, although processing speed emerged as a vulnerable domain for both groups. This study provides the strongest evidence to date of an intellectual sparing advantage with PRT in the treatment of pediatric medulloblastoma.